Health Care Studies Courses

Complementary Alternative Therapies

CAT 201: Introduction to Psychoneuroimmunology (1)

This course will introduce the learner to the field of Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) as it applies to the nature of the Mind-Body connection and its influence on health and well being. Current scientific theory and research regarding the mind's ability to either positively or negatively influence the physical body's form and immune response will be offered and discussed. The theoretical applicability of several complementary healthcare practices in positively influencing this constant mind-body and body-mind dialogue in promoting wellness will be explored. Offered As Needed. (UG)

CAT 202: Found of Meditation and Guided Imagery (2)

This class will include an introduction to various forms of contemporary and wisdom tradition meditations and mental imagery exercises including concentrative, mindfulness and transcendental. The roots and theory of meditation and mental imagery will be discussed along with an overview of scientific inquiry regarding performance effects on the physical body and mind as it relates to health. Specific instruction regarding the performance of meditation and mental imagery will be offered in a lab type setting. Offered As Needed. (UG)

CAT 203: Science of Prayer in Healing (1)

In this course, an overview of prayer will be offered from a basis of theoretical foundation and purported efficacy on health and healing rather than from the perspective of spirituality or religiosity. Offered As Needed. (UG)

CAT 204: Introduction to Hypnotherapy (3)

It is the objective of this course to introduce the student to the use of classical and modern hypnosis techniques, including hypnotic inductions, deepening techniques, depth testing procedures, delivering hypnotic suggestions, emerging the client as well as educating the student in safety and ethical considerations of working with clients using hypnosis. Offered As Needed. (UG)

CAT 213: Foundations of Yoga (2)

Fulfills core competency: Affective Awareness. This class will provide an introduction to the practice of Hatha Yoga. The origins, postures, stretches, and breathing techniques aimed at spiritual and physical well-being will be discussed and practiced along with an overview of scientific inquiry regarding performance effects on the physical body and mind as it relates to health. Specific instruction regarding the performance of basic techniques to balance and liberate an individual's natural flow of energy or prana will be offered in a lab setting. Offered Each Year (Fall and Spring). (UG)

CAT 214: Foundations of Tai Chi (1)

Fulfills core competency: Affective Awareness. This class will provide an introduction to the practice of the Tai Chi art form. The ancient Chinese physical art form's series of slow choreographed movements combined with coordinated breathing and mental concentration will be discussed and practiced along with an overview of scientific inquiry regarding performance effects on the physical body and mind as it relates to health. Specific instruction regarding the performance of basic techniques to balance yin & yang and movement of chi, the vital life force, throughout the body will be offered in a lab setting. Offered Each Year (Fall) (UG)

CAT 220: Foundations of Energy Therapies (1)

The content of this course centers upon quantum physics perspective of matter and the physical body. Representative theory and research supporting the notion that all matter is composed merely of various forms of vibrations and energy waves will be offered and discussed. The non-local nature of these vibrations and energy waves will be discussed as it pertains to the holistic notion of the individual and the universe. The assertion that matter is merely non-local energy will be explored as it relates to several complementary healthcare practices. Offered As Needed. (UG)

CAT 221: Introduction to Chakra System (1)

This course will discuss the complex and vibrant human energy field system referred to as the chakra system. Its rich history as part of the Ayurvedic system of health care in India and its relationship to human health will be explored. Physical and especially psychological perspectives will be presented in depth. Through lecture and application, we will explore how the chakras affect the patient/client on a physical, mental, and spiritual level. Offered as Needed. (UG)

CAT 222: Reiki I (1)

This course introduces the history and the philosophy of this universal method of energy healing, and explores its techniques for adjustment of their energy patterns. The course and practice focus on the Reiki principle that the body recognizes the universal life energy and uses it to promote balance and total health. Offered As Needed. (UG)

CAT 223: Reiki II (1)

This course builds upon CAT 222 and explores the training necessary for application of advanced Reiki attunement techniques in the promotion of healing in others. Prerequisite: CAT 222. Offered As Needed. (UG)

CAT 224: Qi Gong Healing Method (1)

Fulfills core competency: Affective Awareness. This class will provide an introduction to the practice of one branch of Traditional Chinese Medicine, the healing art of Qi Gong. This art form utilizes various movement exercises, self- massage and meditations. Origins and techniques will be discussed and practiced along with an overview of scientific inquiry regarding performance effects on the physical body and mind as it relates to health. Specific instruction regarding the performance of basic techniques will be offered in a lab setting. Offered Each Year (Spring). (UG)

CAT 225: Acupressure (1)

This course focuses on the history, philosophy, theory and practice of acupressure and the Shiatsu, Chinese and Japanese Massage techniques. There is an overview of the 12 primary channels and the two governing vessels, as well as the acu-points, which are commonly used in bodywork. This course is also designed to focus on a wide range of techniques and clinical applications of massage therapy that can be used as a preventative treatment or to assist those suffering from common ailments. Offered As Needed. (UG)

CAT 226: Healing and Therapeutic Touch (1)

This course introduces the origins and practices of therapeutic touch. Course explores the use of the hands on or near the body to help or heal. The concepts and techniques performed are based on the premise that interaction between persons can be viewed as exchanges of energy between two interacting fields. Offered As Needed. (UG)

CAT 228: Introduction to Reflexology (1)

This course provides an introduction to the gentle art and pressure therapy of Reflexology. Students explore the basic theory and learn the principles and holistic, physiological effects of application of pressure to specific reflex points on the hands and feet. Offered As Needed. (UG)

CAT 230: Herbal Studies (3)

The study of the ways that herbs and herbal remedies have traditionally been used in the Western and Eastern societies. Explore the philosophy of herbalism and distinct nutritional and therapeutic benefits that herbs can offer. Learn the fundamentals of preparing and using herbs for health enhancement. Specific health practices, which utilize the therapeutic applications of herbs and other botanical substances, will be discussed. Offered as Needed. (UG)

CAT 231: Aromatherapy: The Science of Fragrance (1)

The course provides an introduction to aromatherapy and the uses, principles and physiological and psychological effects of essential oils. The course will explore the history, basic theory and practice of aromatherapy as well as current evidence of its effectiveness in treating many health conditions. Laboratory experiences will grant students the opportunity to explore the blending and use of essential oils. Offered As Needed. (UG)

CAT 232: Foundations of Homeopathy (2)

Introduces the basic principles of homeopathy. Course sessions introduce the system of healing based on the natural law of like cures like. Topics include information about homeopathic case taking and analysis, homeopathic first aid and home care and its uses for patient education and its application in acute and chronic ailments. Offered as Needed. (UG)

CAT 233: Introduction to Naturopathy (2)

This course will discuss the history, philosophy and fundamental principles of the healing art of naturopathy. Course sessions will include information about naturopathic practices and their application and use in creating a state of complete mental, physical and social wellbeing. Naturopathic approach to health maintenance, prevention of illness and disease and therapeutic interventions for the treatment of acute and chronic ailments are presented. Offered as Needed (UG)

CAT 303: Traditional Chinese Medicine (3)

This course provides an overview of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and introduces the basic concepts and theories. It will provide an introduction to the philosophy and theories fundamental to TCM, including the essential principles of Yin and Yang, five elements and internal organ systems. Acupuncture as a therapy will also be introduced, including meridian theory and acupuncture points. Students will be exposed to the diagnostic methods of TCM and as well as techniques such as cupping, moxibustion, Tai Chi, Qi Gong, Tuina and herbology. Offered Each Year (Spring). (UG)

Health Care Studies

HCS 102: Introduction to Health Care: Systems & Professions (3)

Fulfills core competency: Critical Thinking and Problem Solving. This course explores the current health care system with an emphasis on health care professions, and provides students with an understanding of the major tenants of the health care system and the scope of practice in each of the health professions. The desired skills of health care professionals and the contributions these professions bring to patient care will be investigated. A review of educational preparation and practice requirements for each of the health careers will be explored to assist students in further delineating their own educational and career goals. The course will also provide opportunity for students to appropriately explore the current databases and literature and engage in discussions on the ethics and current events of health care. Offered Each Year (Fall and Spring). (UG)

HCS 105: Introduction to Weight Training (1)

This course introduces the student to the weight room environment. Specific instructions will be given on how to use resistance training equipment such as free weights, machines, and adjunct equipment to exercise and train the major muscle groups of the body to attain a higher fitness level. Basic concepts will be presented to allow the student to apply the knowledge gained in the course to their personal training goals. No prior exercise experience is necessary; this course is designed for the beginner. Offered as Needed (UG)

HCS 106: Introduction to Core Strengthening (1)

This course will introduce students to a range of exercises aimed at increasing core strength, enhancing stability, and supporting posture. Students will learn and identify anatomical structures related to the core and perform tests to assess core strength and ability. Physioball, mat work and other exercises will be demonstrated and practiced, including modifications for beginning, intermediate and advanced routines. Beginners will learn how to safely incorporate these exercises into a personal training routine, while more advanced students will benefit by learning techniques and approaches for teaching these exercises to fitness clients. Offered as Needed. (UG)

HCS 200: CPR and Emergency Health Care (2)

This course outlines the roles of the health care provider and the Emergency Medical Service (EMS) in emergency care. The course focuses on first aid management for life-threatening and non-life-threatening emergencies such as choking, respiratory and cardiac arrest, medical emergencies, injury emergencies, and environmental emergencies incurred during daily, work and athletic activities. Content will also address the concept of "duty to act," liability, disease transmission/prevention, personal protective strategies and blood borne pathogen training. Successful completion by the student is required for eligibility for the Emergency Care and Safety Institute (ECSI) Health Care Provider CPR and AED and First Aid Certifications. Offered Each Year (Fall). (UG)

HCS 201: Survey of Eastern and Western Complementary Medical Approaches (3)

This course provides an overview of current complementary and alternative medical approaches/therapies (CAM). These approaches/therapies, each in its own way, attempt to achieve a state of balance between physical, mental, emotional and spiritual aspects of the person, to help promote the return to wellness and to help the individual remain healthy in the future. Each approach/therapy will be presented by experts/practitioners of the field, and will then be compared and contrasted as to its history, purpose, uses, education/training and current based evidence. Offered Every Other Year (Fall). (UG)

HCS 205: Healthy Eating and Body Image (2)

This course explores community health education as it relates to disordered eating behaviors and body image. Both individual and societal preoccupations with body image are referenced, as modern Western society places increasing emphasis on women's and men's weight and appearance. The effects of popular media on individual's body perception and the way these effects manifest themselves in various physical and psychological disorders will be discussed. Healthy eating will be emphasized as well as other individual and community level approaches to prevention and education. Offered As Needed. (UG)

HCS 206: Cardiovascular Health Education (2)

The course will cover selected topics in cardiovascular health education including heart disease, hypertension, high cholesterol, stroke, diabetes and obesity. Current epidemiological research will be reviewed including risk factors, and screening; treatment and prevention of disease at the primary, secondary and tertiary level will be emphasized. Current models of health education promoting cardiovascular health will be introduced. Offered As Needed. (UG)

HCS 215: HIV/AIDS Education: Science and Society (1)

This course explores multiple perspectives of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, including fundamental principles of HIV/AIDS education, current biomedical advances, and psychological and social aspects of living with the virus. The course will allow students to comfortably discuss issues related to HIV/AIDS, will provide experience with several strategies used in teaching HIV/AIDS education, and will assist students in planning for and developing appropriate educational programs. Offered as Needed. (UG)

HCS 216: Sexual Health Education (2)

This course explores a multitude of concepts related to the theory, practice and teaching of sexual health education at a community level. The course includes comprehensive coverage of information and issues of human sexuality, those related to sexuality education, and an explanation and practice of educational skills necessary for skilled sexuality educators. Offered as Needed. (UG)

HCS 225: Healthy Relationships (1)

This course introduces theories and approaches to education on healthy relationships. It will explore the formation of non-intimate and intimate relationships between people, and the effects (with an emphasis on health) of these relationships on people. These relationships include the everyday associations we have with others as a result of the positions we occupy in various situations (often called role-relationships), as well as the more intimate relationships we form with others (friendships, family relationships, and sexual relationships). Offered As Needed. (UG)

HCS 229: Holistic Lifestyle Practices (3)

This course will introduce students to fundamental theories and approaches to a holistic, or wellness based lifestyle. Current evidence on the physiological and psychological effects of stress, as well as stress management techniques, expressive therapies and coping strategies will be explored. The course will explore the role of physical activity and nutrition as it relates to modern day lifestyles, including contemporary findings on functional foods, alternative diets and other nutritional and fitness approaches to health. This is an applied course in which students will actively engage in a wellness coaching model, stress management exercises, relaxation techniques, self assessments, and personal behavior change projects as related to disease prevention. Offered Every Other Year (Fall). (UG)

HCS 234: Foundations of Public Health (3)

This is an introductory course which explores the basic principles of public health practice, including the history, function and infrastructure of public health; biopsychosocial perspectives of public health problems; the public health professions; and the legal and ethical concerns. Offered Each Year (Spring). (UG)

HCS 300: Contemporary Issues in Integrative Health Care (3)

Writing Intensive. This course explores contemporary issues in integrative health care, or the combination of evidence based complementary and alternative health care practices with Western, conventional practices. The changing paradigm of the current health care arena requires an inquisitive approach, research and critical thinking regarding new directions of health care. Controversial topics and themes in integrative health care will be introduced and students will examine these topics considering the perspective of the patient/consumer, health care provider and the health care system within which the services are being provided. This course is intended for Health Care Studies majors only. Offered Each Year (Fall). (UG)

HCS 301: Physiology of Exercise and Cardiopulmonary Assessment (3)

This course focuses on the physiological bases of active living and sport activities. Addresses functional capacity of the human body, in particular the cardiopulmonary systems, to adjust to demands of work entailing various duration, intensities and technical requirements of the activity. Factors such as age, gender, risk factors, sedentary and non-sedentary life style, and training habits of individuals will be considered as they relate to cardiovascular assessment, training and individual limitations to performance including possibilities for safely minimizing limitations and maximizing performance. Course includes laboratory experiences directed toward competence in graded exercise testing, exercise prescription, and exercise programming as applied to asymptomatic apparently healthy individuals and prevention of cardiovascular, pulmonary, or metabolic diseases. Prerequisite: BIO 207/L and BIO208/L, or BIO316/L, or BIO 330/L and BIO340/L. Corequisite: HCS 301L. Offered Each Year (Fall). (UG)

HCS 301L: Physiology of Exercise and Cardiopulmonary Assessment Laboratory (0)

This course satisfies the laboratory requirement for HCS 301. (UG)

HCS 305: Communicating Health (3)

This course will present fundamental models and theories of health communication to students interested in health promotion and education. Students will move through the steps of the health communication process, from planning to evaluation; will learn to assess an audience and create culturally appropriate materials; and will examine and critique existing health promotion materials, media, and campaigns. Contemporary research in the areas of intercultural communication, provider-patient-family communication, community mobilization, advocacy, social marketing and health technology will be explored. Offered Every Other Year (Fall). (UG)

HCS 308: Environmental Health (3)

Fulfills core competency: Critical Thinking and Problem Solving. This course will provide an introduction to the public health function of environmental and occupational health. This course is intended to give students a basic understanding of how environmental factors impact the health of individuals and the community as a whole, and of the efforts made to prevent or minimize the effects of negative impacts. The emphasis of this course is to explore the relationship of people to their environment how the environment affects individual health and how an individual affects the environment. Efforts and strategies to protect and enhance one?s health and to influence the quality of the environment will be discussed. Offered as Needed. (UG)

HCS 310: Health Promotion and Education (3)

Fulfills core competency: Critical Thinking and Problem Solving. Through this course students will explore concepts and models of health and wellness, health promotion and health education. This course will review the history and profession of health promotion and education, the development of health education materials, learning theories, and will explore health related programs and initiatives in school, clinical, government and corporate settings. Strategies and implementation tactics will be discussed for successful development and delivery of health and wellness programs to address community and individual needs. Offered Each Year (Fall). (UG)

HCS 313: Principles of Health Behavior Change (3)

This course will focus on the theoretical background of health education, health promotion and disease prevention. Students will build critical thinking skills as they explore individual and social health behavior theories and their application to behavior change research and practice. Offered Each Year (Spring). (UG)

HCS 315: Health Research Design and Methodology (3)

Fulfills core competencies: Communication Skills; Critical Thinking and Problem Solving; Information Literacy. Fulfills Research and Presentation requirement. Writing Intensive. This course will introduce students to the field of research design and methods for health related issues. Students will be prepared to critically review research articles and gain a comprehensive understanding of the research process, types of research designs, samples, bias and interactions in research studies as well as how to comprehend the results and study findings. Students will learn how to pose research questions, construct a relevant hypothesis, make valid causal inferences, operationalize concepts, and ways to formally test their hypotheses. This course is intended for HCS Majors only, to be completed the Senior Year. Offered Each Year (Spring). (UG)

HCS 317: Human Motion: Principles and Perspectives (4)

This course is a study of functional anatomy, biomechanical principles, and kinesiology as applied to human movement. Structure and function of the neuromusculoskeletal system including muscle actions, joint motions, and the basic principles of kinesiology are covered. Emphasis is placed on Newton's Laws and force vector analyses as applied to the study of kinematics, kinetics, anthropometrics and muscle mechanics across all regions of the body. Laboratory sessions will incorporate cadaver prosections and problem-based learning experiences to promote development of skill in critical analysis of normal and abnormal movement, the application of kinetic and kinematic biomechanical analysis of movement directed toward assessment for prevention of injury, promotion of function, and optimizing motor skill performance. Prerequisites: BIO 207/L and BIO 208/L or BIO 316/L or BIO 330/L and BIO 340/L. Pre/corequisite: HCS 301/L. Corequisite: HCS 317L. Offered Each Year (Fall). (UG)

HCS 317L: Human Motion: Principles and Perspectives Laboratory (0)

This course satisfies the laboratory requirement for HCS 317. (UG)

HCS 320: Community Health Education and Disease Prevention (3)

Fulfills core competency: Critical Thinking and Problem Solving. The course identifies and explores infectious and non-infectious diseases in relationship to risk factors, populations at risk, and epidemiology. Etiology and mechanisms of injury and disease onset are presented with emphasis on principles and strategies for education, prevention and health maintenance. Medical and therapeutic interventions designed to address common injuries and infectious and non-infectious diseases will be discussed as they relate to community education, prevention and safety program development. Offered Each Year (Fall and Spring). (UG)

HCS 330: Health Promotion Program Planning, Implementation and Evaluation (3)

This course will provide the knowledge and skills needed to plan, implement and evaluate health promotion programs in a variety of settings. Students will be introduced to concepts related to community needs assessment, data collection and measurement, intervention strategies, developing health education materials, evaluation techniques, acting as a health promotion/education resource person, and communication and coordination of health promotion programming. Offered Each Year (Spring). (UG)

HCS 331: Community Health Education: Outreach and Fieldwork (3)

This course will introduce students to practical methods and processes related to community health fieldwork, outreach and community collaboration. Fieldwork and research methods, essential skills in communication and cultural competence, and skills necessary to act as a community resource person will be introduced and practiced as students actively engage in community outreach events. Offered Every Other Year (Fall). (UG)

HCS 332: Strength & Conditioning (3)

In this course, students will explore and apply concepts and principles used to develop effective and appropriate strength and conditioning training programs. Material will cover fundamental strength training philosophies, program design variables, and traditional and contemporary strength training techniques. Students will gain experience in the execution and appropriate instruction of various resistance training techniques. Prerequisites: HCS 301 and HCS 317. Required corequisite: HCS 332L. Offered Each Year (Spring). (UG)

HCS 332L: Strength and Conditioning Lab (0)

This course satisfies the laboratory requirement for HCS 332. (UG)

HCS 335: Critical Issues in Global Health (3)

Fulfills core competency: Contextual Integration. The course introduces the many contexts of global health. Critical issues to be explored include multiple determinants of health, the disparities and burden of disease experienced around the globe, particularly by such populations as women and children, the ethical dimensions related to these disparities, current health priorities, and the importance of global health in terms of development. The Millennium Development Goals will be referred to as a standard for future goals on a global scale. Offered Each Year (Spring). (UG)

HCS 338: Social Determinants of Health (3)

Fulfills core competency: Civic Responsibility. This course will provide students with an understanding of how social factors contribute to racial/ethnic, socioeconomic and gender disparities in health and health care. This course will explore the way the social environment and social behavior influence health. We will cover the most recent research findings in the area of social epidemiology and medical sociology and discuss and debate the causes and consequences of social inequalities in health. Students will gain experience in judging the sometimes conflicting evidence between claims and apply the body of literature to situations with which they are familiar and may have encountered in everyday life. Students will discuss the policy interventions that have been designed to address disparities in health and health care. Offered As Needed. (UG)

HCS 340: Musculoskeletal Fitness Assessment (3)

This course is designed to prepare Health Care Studies students for a career in a health or fitness profession by providing them with musculoskeletal fitness assessment knowledge and skills. This lecture/lab course will explore the steps of musculoskeletal examination, as well as provide the students with the tools to assess static and dynamic musculoskeletal fitness. The importance of musculoskeletal health to overall wellness will also be discussed. Prerequisites: HCS 301 and HCS 317. Corequisite: HCS 340L. Offered Each Year (Spring). (UG)

HCS 340L: Musculoskeletal Fitness Assessment Lab (0)

This course satisfies the laboratory requirement for HCS 340. (UG)

HCS 350: Fitness Training and Exercise Prescription (3)

In this course students develop the rationale for and the skills to examine, evaluate, and prescribe a comprehensive, individualized health-related fitness programs for groups and individuals in a variety of settings. The class includes lectures, demonstrations, and practical laboratories in which students will acquire knowledge and competence in exercise prescription, exercise programming, and health assessment as applied to asymptomatic apparently healthy individuals. The course will include the physiological basis of the short-term response and long-term adaptation of the neuro-musculoskeletal and metabolic systems to exercise including the effect of manipulating specific exercise parameters. Program design and instruction in the proper techniques and execution of training activities is emphasized. Prerequisite: HCS 301 and HCS 317. Corequisite: HCS 350L. Offered Each Year (Spring). (UG)

HCS 350L: Fitness Training and Exercise Prescription Laboratory (0)

This course satisfies the laboratory requirement for HCS 350. (UG)

HCS 353: Introduction to Epidemiology (3)

This course will introduce students to the field of epidemiology, which is the study of the distribution and determinants of health in populations. The course will emphasize methods for assessing factors associated with the distribution and etiology of health and disease. This course will introduce students to key epidemiological concepts and calculations, how to identify and evaluate sources of health information, epidemiological investigation techniques and the evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of different study designs. Prerequisite: MTH 104, NSC 310 or PSY 333. Offered Each Year (Fall). (UG)

HCS 491: Professional Practicum in Community Health (1 - 3)

Minimum 3 credits. The primary purpose of this course is to assist in the development of a competent health care professional who is aware of and can demonstrate those personal and professional competencies necessary for functioning as a contributing professional in a health care environment. The focus of the course is on the implementation of communication skills, critical thinking and the application of knowledge and skills gained in didactic coursework in their target employment environment. In collaboration with, and supervised by Health Care Studies faculty, students will be placed in a practicum site, and will develop learning objectives relative to their placement, This 3-credit experience requires a minimum of 150 hours in the workplace and is typically completed within one 15-week semester. If a student chooses a second specialization, a minimum of one additional credit is required in that area of specialization. Offered Fall, Spring and Summer. (UG)

HCS 492: Professional Practicum in Health and Fitness (1 - 3)

Minimum 3 credits. The primary purpose of this course is to assist in the development of a competent health care professional who is aware of and can demonstrate those personal and professional competencies necessary for functioning as a contributing professional in a health care environment. The focus of the course is on the implementation of communication skills, critical thinking and the application of knowledge and skills gained in didactic coursework in their target employment environment. In collaboration with, and supervised by Health Care Studies faculty, students will be placed in a practicum site, and will develop learning objectives relative to their placement, This 3-credit experience requires a minimum of 150 hours in the workplace and is typically completed within one 15-week semester. If a student chooses a second specialization, a minimum of one additional credit is required in that area of specialization. Offered Fall, Spring and Summer. (UG)

HCS 493: Professional Practicum in Complementary and Alternative Health Care Practices (1 - 3)

Minimum 3 credits. The primary purpose of this course is to assist in the development of a competent health care professional who is aware of and can demonstrate those personal and professional competencies necessary for functioning as a contributing professional in a health care environment. The focus of the course is on the implementation of communication skills, critical thinking and the application of knowledge and skills gained in didactic coursework in their target employment environment. In collaboration with, and supervised by Health Care Studies faculty, students will be placed in a practicum site, and will develop learning objectives relative to their placement, This 3-credit experience requires a minimum of 150 hours in the workplace and is typically completed within one 15-week semester. If a student chooses a second specialization, a minimum of one additional credit is required in that area of specialization. Offered Fall, Spring and Summer. (UG)