Through systems thinking, people can recognize the commonalities that exist among all
systems and how parts of a system interrelate and combine to perform specific functions.
Key Idea 2: Models
Models are simplified representations of objects, structures, or systems, used in analysis,
explanation, or design.
Key Idea 3: Magnitude and Scale
The grouping of magnitudes of size, time, frequency, and pressures or other units of
measurement into a series of relative order provides a useful way to deal with the
immense range and the changes in scale that affect behavior and design of systems.
Key Idea 4: Equilibrium and Stability
Equilibrium is a state of stability due either to a lack of changes (static equilibrium) or a
balance between opposing forces (dynamic equilibrium).
Key Idea 5: Patterns of Change
Identifying patterns of change is necessary for making predictions about future
behavior and conditions.
Key Idea 6: Optimization
In order to arrive at the best solution that meets criteria within constraints, it is often
necessary to make trade-offs.