VIII.1 An oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction involves the transfer of electrons (e - ). (3.2d)

VIII.2 Reduction is the gain of electrons. (3.2e)

VIII.3 A half-reaction can be written to represent reduction. (3.2f)

VIII.4 Oxidation is the loss of electrons. (3.2g)

VIII.5 A half-reaction can be written to represent oxidation. (3.2h)

VIII.6 In a redox reaction the number of electrons lost is equal to the number of electrons gained. (3.3b)

VIII.7 Oxidation numbers (states) can be assigned to atoms and ions. Changes in oxidation numbers indicate that oxidation and reduction have occurred. (3.2i)

VIII.8 An electrochemical cell can be either voltaic or electrolytic. In an electrochemical cell, oxidation occurs at the anode and reduction at the cathode. (3.2j)

VIII.9 A voltaic cell spontaneously converts chemical energy to electrical energy. (3.2k)

VIII.10 An electrolytic cell requires electrical energy to produce chemical change. This process is known as electrolysis. (3.2l)