4.1a Reproduction and development are necessary for the continuation of any species.

4.1b Some organisms reproduce asexually with all the genetic information coming from

one parent. Other organisms reproduce sexually with half the genetic information typically contributed by each parent. Cloning is the production of identical genetic copies.

4.1c The processes of meiosis and fertilization are key to sexual reproduction in a wide

variety of organisms. The process of meiosis results in the production of eggs and sperm

which each contain half of the genetic information. During fertilization, gametes unite to

form a zygote, which contains the complete genetic information for the offspring.

4.1d The zygote may divide by mitosis and differentiate to form the specialized cells,

tissues, and organs of multicellular organisms.

4.1e Human reproduction and development are influenced by factors such as gene

expression, hormones, and the environment. The reproductive cycle in both males and

females is regulated by hormones such as testosterone, estrogen, and progesterone.

4.1f The structures and functions of the human female reproductive system, as in

almost all other mammals, are designed to produce gametes in ovaries, allow for internal fertilization, support the internal development of the embryo and fetus in the uterus,

and provide essential materials through the placenta, and nutrition through milk for the


4.1g The structures and functions of the human male reproductive system, as in other

mammals, are designed to produce gametes in testes and make possible the delivery of

these gametes for fertilization.

4.1h In humans, the embryonic development of essential organs occurs in early stages

of pregnancy. The embryo may encounter risks from faults in its genes and from its

mother’s exposure to environmental factors such as inadequate diet, use of

alcohol/drugs/tobacco, other toxins, or infections throughout her pregnancy.