2.2a Insolation (solar radiation) heats Earth’s surface and atmosphere unequally due to

variations in:

¥ the intensity caused by differences in atmospheric transparency and angle of incidence which vary with time of day, latitude, and season

¥ characteristics of the materials absorbing the energy such as color, texture, transparency, state of matter, and specific heat

¥ duration, which varies with seasons and latitude.

2.2b The transfer of heat energy within the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and Earth’s

surface occurs as the result of radiation, convection, and conduction.

¥ Heating of Earth’s surface and atmosphere by the Sun drives convection within the

atmosphere and oceans, producing winds and ocean currents.

2.2c A location’s climate is influenced by latitude, proximity to large bodies of water,

ocean currents, prevailing winds, vegetative cover, elevation, and mountain ranges.

2.2d Temperature and precipitation patterns are altered by:

¥ natural events such as El NiŒo and volcanic eruptions

¥ human influences including deforestation, urbanization, and the production of green-

house gases such as carbon dioxide and methane.