2.2a Insolation (solar radiation) heats Earths surface and atmosphere unequally due to
¥ the intensity caused by differences in atmospheric transparency and angle of incidence which vary with time of day, latitude, and season
¥ characteristics of the materials absorbing the energy such as color, texture, transparency, state of matter, and specific heat
¥ duration, which varies with seasons and latitude.
2.2b The transfer of heat energy within the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and Earths
surface occurs as the result of radiation, convection, and conduction.
¥ Heating of Earths surface and atmosphere by the Sun drives convection within the
atmosphere and oceans, producing winds and ocean currents.
2.2c A locations climate is influenced by latitude, proximity to large bodies of water,
ocean currents, prevailing winds, vegetative cover, elevation, and mountain ranges.
2.2d Temperature and precipitation patterns are altered by:
¥ natural events such as El Nio and volcanic eruptions
¥ human influences including deforestation, urbanization, and the production of green-
house gases such as carbon dioxide and methane.