4.4a Each radioactive isotope has a specific mode and rate of decay (half-life).

4.4b Nuclear reactions include natural and artificial transmutation, fission, and fusion.

4.4c Nuclear reactions can be represented by equations that include symbols which

represent atomic nuclei (with mass number and atomic number), subatomic particles

(with mass number and charge), and/or emissions such as gamma radiation.

4.4d Radioactive isotopes have many beneficial uses. Radioactive isotopes are used in

medicine and industrial chemistry for radioactive dating, tracing chemical and biological

processes, industrial measurement, nuclear power, and detection and treatment of


4.4e There are inherent risks associated with radioactivity and the use of radioactive

isotopes. Risks can include biological exposure, long-term storage and disposal, and

nuclear accidents.

4.4f There are benefits and risks associated with fission and fusion reactions.