V. 1 Matter is classified as a pure substance or as a mixture of substances. (3.1q)

V. 2 The three phases of matter (solids, liquids, and gases) have different properties. (3.1kk)

V. 3 A pure substance (element or compound) has a constant composition and constant properties throughout a given sample, and from sample to sample. (3.1r)

V. 4 Elements are substances that are composed of atoms that have the same atomic number. Elements can-not be broken down by chemical change. (3.1u)

V. 5 Mixtures are composed of two or more different substances that can be separated by physical means. When different substances are mixed together, a homogeneous or heterogeneous mixture is formed.(3.1s)

V. 6 The proportions of components in a mixture can be varied. Each component in a mixture retains its original properties. (3.1t)

V. 7 Differences in properties such as density, particle size, molecular polarity, boiling point and freezing point, and solubility permit physical separation of the components of the mixture. (3.1nn)

V. 8 A solution is a homogeneous mixture of a solute dissolved in a solvent. The solubility of a solute in a given amount of solvent is dependent on the temperature, the pressure, and the chemical natures of the solute and solvent. (3.1oo)

V. 9 The concentration of a solution may be expressed as molarity (M), percent by volume, percent by mass, or parts per million (ppm). (3.1pp)

V.10 The addition of a nonvolatile solute to a solvent causes the boiling point of the solvent to increase and the freezing point of the solvent to decrease. The greater the concentration of particles, the greater the effect. (3.1qq)

V. 11 Energy can exist in different forms, such as chemical, electrical, electromagnetic, heat, mechanical, and nuclear. (4.1a)

V.12 Heat is a transfer of energy (usually thermal energy) from a body of higher temperature to a body of lower temperature. Thermal energy is the energy associated with the random motion of atoms and molecules. (4.2a)

V.13 Temperature is a measurement of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample of material. Temperature is not a form of energy. (4.2b)

V.14 The concept of an ideal gas is a model to explain the behavior of gases. A real gas is most like an ideal gas when the real gas is at low pressure and high temperature. (3.4a)

V.15 Kinetic molecular theory (KMT) for an ideal gas states that all gas particles (3.4b):

1. are in random, constant, straight-line motion.

2. are separated by great distances relative to their size; the volume of the gas particles is

considered negligible.

3. have no attractive forces between them.

4. have collisions that may result in the transfer of energy between gas particles, but the total

energy of the system remains constant.

V.16 Collision theory states that a reaction is most likely to occur if reactant particles collide with the proper energy and orientation. (3.4d)

V.17 Kinetic molecular theory describes the relationships of pressure, volume, temperature, velocity, and frequency and force of collisions among gas molecules. (3.4c)

V.18 Equal volumes of different gases at the same temperature and pressure contain an equal number of particles.(3.4e)

V.19 The concepts of kinetic and potential energy can be used to explain physical processes that include: fusion(melting), solidification (freezing), vaporization (boiling, evaporation), condensation, sublimation, and deposition.(4.2c)

V.20 A physical change results in the rearrangement of existing particles in a substance. A chemical change results in the formation of different substances with changed properties. (3.2a)

V.21 Chemical and physical changes can be exothermic or endothermic. (4.1b)

V.22 The structure and arrangement of particles and their interactions determine the physical state of a substance at a given temperature and pressure. (3.1jj)

V.23 Intermolecular forces created by the unequal distribution of charge result in varying degrees of attraction between molecules. Hydrogen bonding is an example of a strong intermolecular force. (5.2m)

V.24 Physical properties of substances can be explained in terms of chemical bonds and intermolecular forces. These properties include conductivity, malleability, solubility, hardness, melting point, and boiling point.(5.2n)