5.3a States of matter and energy are restricted to discrete values (quantized).

5.3b Charge is quantized on two levels .On the atomic level, charge is restricted to mul-

tiples of the elementary charge (charge on the electron or proton).On the subnuclear

level, charge appears as fractional values of the elementary charge (quarks).

5.3c On the atomic level, energy is emitted or absorbed in discrete packets called


5.3d The energy of a photon is proportional to its frequency.*

5.3e On the atomic level, energy and matter exhibit the characteristics of both waves

and particles.

5.3f Among other things, mass-energy and charge are conserved at all levels (from sub-

nuclear to cosmic).

5.3g The Standard Model of Particle Physics has evolved from previous attempts to

explain the nature of the atom and states that:

•atomic particles are composed of subnuclear particles

•the nucleus is a comglomeration of quarks which manifest themselves as pro-

tons and neutrons

•each elementary particle has a corresponding antiparticle

5.3h Behaviors and characteristics of matter, from the microscopic to the cosmic levels,

are manifestations of its atomic structure. The macroscopic characteristics of matter,

such as electrical and optical properties, are the result of microscopic interactions.

5.3i The total of the fundamental interactions is responsible for the appearance and

behavior of the objects in the universe.

5.3j The fundamental source of all energy in the universe is the conversion of mass into