4.1) Observe and describe the variations in reproductive patterns of organisms, including asexual and sexual reproduction.

4.2) Explain the role of sperm and egg cells in sexual reproduction.

4.3) Observe and describe developmental patterns in selected plants and animals (e.g., insects, frogs, humans, seed-bearing plants).

4.4) Observe and describe cell division at the microscopic level and its macroscopic effects.