5.2a Food provides molecules that serve as fuel and building material for all organisms.

All living things, including plants, must release energy from their food, using it to carry

on their life processes.

5.2b Foods contain a variety of substances, which include carbohydrates, fats, vitamins,

proteins, minerals, and water. Each substance is vital to the survival of the organism.

5.2c Metabolism is the sum of all chemical reactions in an organism. Metabolism can be

influenced by hormones, exercise, diet, and aging.

5.2d Energy in foods is measured in Calories. The total caloric value of each type of

food varies. The number of Calories a person requires varies from person to person.

5.2e In order to maintain a balanced state, all organisms have a minimum daily intake

of each type of nutrient based on species, size, age, sex, activity, etc. An imbalance in any

of the nutrients might result in weight gain, weight loss, or a diseased state.

5.2f Contraction of infectious disease, and personal behaviors such as use of toxic sub-

stances and some dietary habits, may interfere with one’s dynamic equilibrium. During

pregnancy these conditions may also affect the development of the child. Some effects of

these conditions are immediate; others may not appear for many years.