2.1) Devise ways of making observations to test proposed explanations.

2.2) Refine research ideas through library investigations, including electronic information

retrieval and reviews of the literature, and through peer feedback obtained from review and


2.3) Develop and present proposals including formal hypotheses to test explanations; i.e., predict what should be observed under specific conditions if the explanation is true.

2.4) Carry out a research plan for testing explanations, including selecting and developing techniques, acquiring and building apparatus, and recording observations as necessary.