S1.1 Formulate questions independently with the aid of references appropriate for

guiding the search for explanations of everyday observations.

S1.2 Construct explanations independently for natural phenomena, especially by

proposing preliminary visual models of phenomena.

S1.3 Represent, present, and defend their proposed explanations of everyday observa-

tions so that they can be understood and assessed by others.

S1.4 Seek to clarify, to assess critically, and to reconcile with their own thinking the

ideas presented by others, including peers, teachers, authors, and scientists.